Inclusive Voices in Post-Exilic Judah examines the concept of universalism "inclusive voices" in the post-exilic writings of the Hebrew Scriptures, especially Isaiah 56-66, Ruth, and Jonah. The radical nature of the universalism in these Scriptures is different from that in Isaiah 40-55 (an exilic writing), which has often been promoted as the epitome of universalism in the Old Testament. This work identifies differences among the texts to argue for new dimensions of inclusiveness now proclaimed in the post-exilic writings.
At the same time, it is recognized that other texts from the same period propose policies of exclusion: Ezekial 44 and Ezra and Nehemiah. The fact that such opposite points of view remain in the Scriptures allows the Gospel writers to recall past messages of inclusiveness and use them as part of their apology for the proclamation of the Gospel.
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